# Electricity in the world

It there not of world standards for electricity : neither voltage nor frequency of the electric current are identical in each country. Moreover, there exist great differences between the countries as for the cards electric and socket-outlet. Seemingly these differences are unimportant, but they can have rather annoying continuations.
The majority of the apparatuses which one buys in another continent cannot be connected in Europe, quite simply because our catches are not compatible with the card of the imported apparatus. There are only two solutions to solve the problem: either the foreign card is cut and one replaces it by another, or one buys a not very esthetic adapter and malcommode. But that being made, there are unfortunately all the chances that the problem is still not solved since an adapter ensures only compatibility between the card and the electrical outlet, but it will not change the voltage. An absolutely spectacular fireworks would be held if an apparatus coming from the United States were connected some share in Europe.

### Single-phase current and frequency

In Europe and in the majority of the other countries of the world the tension varies between 220 and 240 volts, when in Japan and in North America the values of tension fluctuate between 100 in 127 volts.
At the end of the XIXe century the generator of alternative course was invented by Nikola Tesla, engineer of origin Serb. This creative genius had calculated that 60 Hz (the number of changes of direction of the current a second, expressed in Hertz) is the frequency which made it possible to obtain the best output for the generators of alternative course. He preferred the tension of 240 V, which he considered good for transport on long distances without being extremely dangerous. Thomas Edison in parallel developed a system of D.C. current to 110 V which was without any surer doubt, but less practical for transport.
When German company AEG set up the first service of electrical production, she chose the 50 Hz, in order to adjust the frequency with the metric system. Profiting from quasi a monopoly, AEG easily could diffuse this standard on the remainder of the continent. In Great Britain, many frequencies cohabited and it is only after the Second world war that the 50 Hz spread in Europe.
Not only the 50 Hz is less effective 20% for the generation of alternative course, but still it is 10 to less effective 15% for transport. At present, only one handle of country (Peru, Ecuador, Guyana, Philippines and South Korea) seem to have taken the advice of Mr Tesla by using a frequency of 60 Hz in combination with a voltage from 220 to 240 V.
In the beginning, the tension of 110 V was very widespread in Europe, as in North America and in Japan today. But because of fluctuations of current and by need of more than electric output, it was decided at the end of the years 1950 and with beginning of the year 1960 to double this tension. In Europe, this transition did not pose many problems, but in the United States the government gave up the project by considerations of economic order and financier. Indeed, in years 1950 of many American families a refrigerator, a washing machine and other electricals appliance had already bought, which was not at all the case in Europe of the post-war period.
Currently, the United States always has problems connected to this weak electric tension (p.ex. the apparatuses being at the end of the electrical circuit function sometimes badly because of a too weak voltage, the lamps which are installed at the beginning of the circuit, very close to the electricity meter, jump more quickly, etc). A difference in tension from almost 20% between the beginning and the end of the circuit, it is really currency
In order to solve part of the problem, the new American buildings are supplied with 230 V, are divided into twice 115 V between the phase and the neutral. The apparatuses which consume much electricity (furnaces, washing machine, dryer, etc) are connected directly in 230 V.

### Alphabetical list of the countries (single-phase current, frequency and cards ⁄ electrical outlets)

In Brazil there is no standard tension. The majority of the federate States use 127 V (Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Espírito Santo, Mato Grosso C Sul, Maranhão, Pará, Paraná, Rondônia, Roraima, Sergipe and Minas Gerais). In some other federate States - especially those located at the North-East - the companies of electricity provide 220 V (Alagoas, Brasília, Ceará, Mato Grosso, Goiás, Paraíba, Rio Grande C Norte, Santa Catarina and Tocantins). Though the standard tension is 127 V at the States de Bahia, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande C Sul, the cities Santos, Jequié, Jundiaí, São Bernardo C Campo, Novo Friburgo, Bagé, Caxias C Sul and Pelotas are fed in 220 V. the federate States Pernambuco and Piauí use 220 V, except for the cities Paulista and Teresina (127 V).
Although the standard voltage is the same one in Japan everywhere, there are nevertheless differences in frequency. In Eastern Japan 50 Hz is generally of use (Tokyo, Kawasaki, Sapporo, Yokohama, Sendai), when in Western Japan 60 Hz is the frequency used (Osaka, Kyoto, Nagoya, Hiroshima).
Saudi Arabia in general uses a tension of 110 V, such as for example in area Dammam and Al-Khobar (in the Eastern province Ash Sharqiyah), but in the majority of the hotels there are electrical outlets which also provide 220 V.
In Tahiti the frequency is of 60 Hz everywhere, except in the Marquesas Islands where 50 Hz is the standard.
In the beginning, the introduction of electricity into the hearths was done for electric lighting. However, when electricals appliance appeared on the market, such as heatings and various other ustensils, it was necessary to find a system of connection to the network other than the casings of bulbs. The first electrical outlet was invented by Harvey Hubbell in 1904. At that time, certain American companies of electricity applied a tariff system in which the price of electricity for lighting was lower than that of the other types of use, this is why one developed apparatuses intended to be connected by the bulbs.
At the time when one needed surer systems, one launched the catches connected to the ground. The reason for which there exists today of many types of different and incompatible catches lies in the fact that each country preferred to design its own model, instead of adopting a common standard.
The chart hereafter watch various types of catches used in the world. For more convenience, the compatible catches are consequently indicated color.

# TYPE A

be used inter alia in North America and in Japan
This card without ground, which contains two pins parallel punts, is the standard in North America everywhere, like in Central America. At first sight, the Japanese cards and catches are identical to their hanging American, but there is a small difference: the Japanese cards have two of the same pins length, which is not the case for the pins of the American cards. That wants to say that the Japanese apparatuses can be connected without adapter in North America, but the reverse is not always possible. Moreover, Japan has other standards for the diameters of the cables, amperage, etc
The card of the type has is undoubtedly one of most dangerous world: it is not stable in the socket-outlet, is demolished rather easily and them pins are completely out of metal (the pins thus do not lay out basic isolated, in opposition to the cards of the type C, G and I). In other words: the small children are likely to touch metal with the fingers when the card is still with connected half.

# TYPE B

be used inter alia in North America and in Japan
Just like the type has, this card contains two pins parallel punts, but it also has a round pin of earthing. This card is also used in Japan, but it is much less frequent.
In Central America, one almost always finds sockets of type A. Those of the type B were not integrated yet, but one can buy well there apparatuses equipped with cards of the type B, incompatible with the sockets of type A. In order to connect these apparatuses, one cuts the pin ground in general.

# TYPE C

be used everywhere in Europe, except in Great Britain, in Ireland, in Cyprus and in Malta)
This card without ground, called the "catch euro", can be connected on each socket which has two round holes from 4 to 4,8 mms in diameter, whose centers are distant of 19 Misters the type C is without any doubt the most widespread card in the world; all Europe uses it, except Great Britain, Ireland and Malta. Moreover, the type C is the standard card in Russia and in some countries of Africa. One could regard this card as "the big brother" of the cards put at ground of the types E, F, J, K and L, and also those are Currently completely compatible with the type C. the sockets of the type C (not cards, of course!) became illegal in many European countries: for safety reasons all the new sockets must be put at ground.

# TYPE D

be used almost only in India, in Sri Lanka, in Nepal and in Namibia)
The British exported towards all their colonies this card, which was the standard in Great Britain up to 1962. Nowadays it is used only by India and its adjoining countries. This card comprises three cylindrical pins and supports up to 5 A. For the more powerful apparatuses, the card of the type M is used, since this one has larger pins and supports up to 15 A. Certaines sockets accept the cards of the type D like those of the Mr. type.

# TYPE E

be used primarily in France, in Belgium, in Luxembourg, in Poland, as Slovakia, as a Czech Republic, in Tunisia and in Morocco)
The mural base of the type E resembles the type C a little, but the earth electrode consists of a pin which exceeds socket. The two round holes have a diameter of 4,8 mm and are distant of 19 mm distance between centres. There is no insulation at the base of the pins, because on the sockets the base has an edge and surrounds the card, without risk of contact.
Formerly, the cards of the type F were incompatible with the catches of the type E, since those have a ground pin which exceeds base female and the cards of the type F did not have hole to conversely accept the pin ground of the type E., the original cards of the type E did not return in the sockets of the type F, because the two pins and the contracting on the sides made them obstacle. Currently, one generally finds cards compatible with the two sockets E and F (see photo), because in general they have at the same time an external plate (to establish the contact with the ground pins, of a socket F) and of a hole (to accept the ground pin of a socket E).

# TYPE F

be used in the majority of the European countries, such as for example Germany, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, Austria, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Turkey and Eastern Europe
The card F, called the "Schuko card", can more or less be regarded as the standard European card. It is used in the majority of the countries of Western Europe and almost everywhere in Eastern Europe. "Schuko" is the acronym of Schutzkontakt", which is a German word meaning "contact put at ground". This card and this catch were elaborate in Germany right after the First World War. The mural base resembles the type C a little, but the earth electrode consists of two pins placed on the interior edges of the socket. The two round holes have a diameter of 4,8 mm and are distant of 19 mm distance between centres. There is no insulation at the base of the pins, because on the sockets the base has an edge and surrounds the card, without risk of contact.
Formerly, the cards of the type F were incompatible with the catches of the type E, since those have a ground pin which exceeds base female and the cards of the type F did not have hole to conversely accept the pin ground of the type E., the original cards of the type E did not return in the sockets of the type F, because the two pins and the contracting on the sides made them obstacle. Currently, one generally finds cards compatible with the two sockets E and F (see photo), because in general they have at the same time an external plate (to establish the contact with the ground pins of a socket F) and of a hole (to accept the ground pin of a socket E).
In Russia, one uses a card (recorded like GOST 7396) almost identical to the type F, but whose pins are a little narrower (4 mm instead of 4,8 mm). That implies that the Russian cards can be used in Europe, but the reverse is not always possible.

# TYPE G

be used especially in Great Britain, in Ireland, in Cyprus, in Malta, in Singapore and HongKong)
The British cards have three large pins punts and contain a fuse inside the connector. The pins are insulated at the base in order to avoid each human contact as soon as the card (even partially) is connected on its socket. Since the ground pin is a little longer than the others two, it enters in first the socket and désenclenche thus protection of the holes for the pins neutral and phase. The British cards and catches are undoubtedly surest of the world thanks to the robustness and to the security measures, but they are also disgracieuses. From there comes that one often says while scoffing who the British cards are generally larger than the apparatus to which they are connected

# TYPE H

be used only in Israel)
This card, specific to Israel, is made up of three pins punts, laid out in the shape of V. the presence of electrical equipment with cards of the type C on the Israeli market, stimulated the government to be made work out and standardize a new version of the card H (with round pins). The holes of the sockets ensure compatibility with the cards of the type H, as those of the type C. the cards with pins punts are gradually eliminated in favor of the cards with round pins.

# TYPE I

be used especially in Australia, in New Zealand, in New Guinea-News-Guinea, in China and Argentina
This card comprises two pins punts out of V turned over and, when equipped with a ground, a third pin in the medium. It is similar to the type H Israeli, but dimensions are not compatible and the pins are placed out of V (not out of V turned over). There are two versions of this type (10 and 15 A). Although there are small differences, the Australian cards are compatible with the Chinese socket-outlets (and conversely).

# TYPE J

be used almost only in Switzerland and in Liechtenstein
Switzerland uses a card which is similar to the type L Italian, but the pins of the type J are not aligned. The cards of the type C can without difficulty of connecting itself in the Swiss socket-outlets.

# TYPE K

be used only in Denmark and Greenland
The Danish earth electrodes resemble much the types E and F, but they have three pins instead of two. The mural bases of the type K accept without problem the cards of the type C. the types E and F can also connect on the Danish socket, but the connection of ground will not be carried out.

# TYPE L

be used almost only in Italy and by-Ci by-there in Africa
There are two versions (incompatible!) of this earth electrode Italian (10 and 16 A) which are characterized by spacing and the diameter from the pins. The mural bases of the type L accept without problem the cards of the type C, which is not always the case for the connectors of type E ⁄ F. Moreover, even if one manages to connect these cards, the ground will not be connected. This is why one installs more and more "universal" catches which are able to accommodate the three types C, E and F in addition to the two Italian versions.

# TYPE M

be used almost only in South Africa, in Swaziland and Lesotho
This card is a more powerful version of the type D: its pins are larger and amperage is of 15 A. It is standard in South Africa, in Swaziland and Lesotho.
India, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Namibia also use it, but only for more powerful apparatuses and in combination with a socket of the type Mr. Ici and there one can meet socket-outlets which accept the cards of the type D like those of the Mr. type In Israel, the cards of the type M are from time to time employed for the air-conditioners and unquestionable standard of washing machine.
In Argentina, the socket-outlets of type I are the only official ones, but that and there one can always meet the type C.
In Cyprus of the South (the Greek part) the British catches are of use (standard G), when in Cyprus of North (the Turkish part) the European standard (standard F) is used.
Officially, the South-African catch is of the type M, but the apparatuses with cards of the type C are sold everywhere and are connected by means of an adapter. From time to time the cards of the type D can also be met.
If you are on a journey and you do not know which is the local tension, look at quite simply what is printed on a lamp in your hotel room or a supermarket

### Alphabetical list of the countries (three-phase current, frequency and many electric wires required)

In almost all the houses, the current which leaves the electrical outlet is single-phase current. However, much from houses are also fed in three-phase current to provide enough power to the electric household appliances encastrables (furnace and cooking surface) or to the electric heating. That wants to say that an average house lays out to the maximum of two three-phase catches, which are hidden behind the encastrables or the radiators. The three-phase current is necessary only for the large needs for power.
In the industry of the three-phase current is really necessary, since the machines are too often much powerful to be fed in single-phase current. In other words: the table below is intended only to the electricians and to engineers. If you are with the research of the standard voltage of the country which you want to visit, go to the alphabetical Liste section countries (single-phase current, frequency and cards/electrical outlets).

# TYPE N

is used almost exclusively in Brazil
The type NR is the official standard in Brazil. This standard was introduced by stages between 2007 and 2010. Although the type NR resembles the type J much, both are not compatible: the position of the ground pin of the type NR is closer to the imaginary line which connects the two other pins than the pin ground of the type J (3 mm instead of 5 mm). There are two versions of the type NR: one having pins 4 mms in diameter (10 amps) and the other having pins 4,8 mms in diameter (20 amps). The catches of the type NR can also accommodate the cards of the type C.
The type NR is based on the IEC 60906-1, the international standard concerning the universal socket-outlet. In 1986, the electrotechnical Commission Internationale (CEI) published this standard which was intended to become one day the international standard. Unfortunately, no country adopted this standard, except for Brazil. In this Latin-American country, not less than 10 (!) systems of cards and catches were of use. This is why the Brazilian Association of technical Standards adopted standard NBR 14136 in 2001 and began its introduction in 2007. However, this standard Brésilienne 14136 is not perfectly identical to the IEC 60906-1. The greatest difference between the two lies in the fact that the Brazilian catch has pins 4 mm in diameter (10 A) or 4,8 mm (20 A), while universal catch IEC 60906-1 exists only in only one version, having pins 4,5 mms in diameter and an amperage of 16 A.
Although the type NR is one of the systems more sùrs world, the introduction of this standard involved a new risk of safety because there is only one socket-outlet for all Brazil, while the voltage is not the same one in each Brazilian state. In most of Brazil 127 V are the standard tension, but 38% of the Brazilian households have 220 V. That wants to say that if one buys a hair drier in the state of Minas Gerais (tension: 127 V) and one uses it in Brasilia (tension: 220 V), it will remain to you a carbonized hair drier! It is true that there are many apparatuses in bivoltage at the Brazilian market, but it is always necessary to pay attention by connecting an apparatus.