1 : battery connected in series
2 : battery connected in parallel
3 : battery connected in series and Parallel

Battery redox vanadium

energy ⁄ weight
10 to 20 Wh ⁄ kg
energy ⁄ volume
15 to 25 Wh ⁄ l
output load-discharge
10-20 years
many cycles of load
10000 cycles
nominal voltage by element
1,15-1,55 V
General information
A battery redox vanadium or battery with oxydoreduction with vanadium, is a type of refillable battery with flow which uses vanadium in various states of oxidation to store chemical potential energy. A German patent of battery with flow with titanium chlrorure already had been recorded and accepted in 1954, but the majority of the developments were carried out by the researchers of NASA in the Seventies. The use of vanadium had been suggested already, but the first real demonstration and the commercial development of all the batteries vanadium with flow working with a sulphuric acid solution were carried out by Maria Skyllas-Kazacos and collaborators at the university of News-Wales of the South in Australia. The current form electrolytes with the sulphuric acid was patented by the university of News-Wales of the South in 1989.
The batteries with flow store electricity and generate it by reaction of oxydoreduction. They present two compartments separated by an exchanging membrane from protons, where collectors of current are plunged. This membrane allows the exchange of protons between the two compartments anodic and cathodic, where the electrolytic solutions are likely to be reduced and oxidized. The two liquid electrolytes are based on vanadium: the half positive cell contains ions VO2+ and VO2+ whereas it half negative cell contains ions V3+ and V2+. The electrolytes can be prepared by various processes. For example, of vanadium pentaoxyde (V2O5) can be dissolved in the sulphuric acid (H2SO4), giving a strongly acid solution. Existing vanadium in 4 states of oxidation; batteries with only one électroactif element, instead of two, can be manufactured.
Principle of operation
Main advantages:
The capacity is augmentable at will, simply by using increasingly large tanks
The battery can be left discharged for long period without degrading itself
It can also be reloaded by replacing the electrolyte if no energy source is available to charge it. This battery thus allows a fast recharging by replacement of the electrolyte a pump, or a slow recharging, connected with a catch
If the electrolytes are mixed accidentally, the battery does not suffer from any irreversible damage.
The principal disadvantage of technology vanadium redox is the relatively low ratio energy ⁄ volume and the complexity of the system compared with the batteries standards.
The important capacity of these batteries returns them adapted well to the applications requiring of important storages, an answer to a peak of consumption, or a smoothing of the production of variable sources like the solar power stations or wind. Weak the autodécharge and limited maintenance led to their adoption in unquestionable soldiers application. These batteries making it possible to answer quickly the request, they can also be employed in the applications of food without interruption where they replace the batteries lead-acid or the generators.

lead-acid battery

positive grid
negative grid
negative beam
complete element
crawl of stoppers
20-40 [Wh-kg]
40-100 [WH-L]
output load-discharge
4 to 5 years
many cycles of load
500 has 1200
nominal voltage by element
2.1 Volts
A lead-acid battery is a whole of accumulators to lead-acid connected in series and joined together in the same case.
This storage system of electricity is largely used in industry like in the equipment of the motor vehicles.
Battery of car
The lead accumulator was invented in 1859 by French. It was indeed the first to have developed the first refillable battery. At the origin, the accumulators were located in tanks out of glass. Thereafter, one systematized the use of the plastic tanks.
Nowadays, the batteries without maintenance spread: treated thimbles anti-sulphating, plates with lead-calcium, removing the need to remake the level of liquid, and thus allowing sealing.
Features. A lead-acid battery is characterized primarily by:
The nominal voltage which depends on the number of elements, the nominal voltage U is equal to the number of elements multiplied by 2,1 Volts. Generally it is considered that a lead accumulator is discharged when it reaches the tension of 1.8 Volts per element, therefore a battery from 6 elements or 12 Volts is discharged, when it reaches the tension of 0.8 Volts.
Storage capacity, noted, represents the quantity of energy available (not to confuse with the electric capacity. It is expressed in ampere-hour
The maximum current that it can provide during a few moments, or peak current in amps CCA.
The maximum values are given by the manufacturer for a battery new and charged at 100%, they vary appreciably according to the state of load, are degraded according to time as well as use which is made battery.
The electrochemical reactions to the electrodes are the following ones:
Anode (oxidation):
Cathode (reduction):
The lead-acid battery is that which with worst mass energy 35 Wh ⁄ kg, after the Nickel-Fer battery. But as it is able to provide a current of great intensity, useful for the electric starting of the internal combustion engines, it still is very much used in particular in the motor vehicles.
This battery is used to feed the electric components of the motor vehicles with explosion, particularly the electric starter, supplied with an alternator.
Historically, the batteries of cars or motor cycles made generally 6 Voltss (3 elements). At the time modern, the batteries with 12 Voltss (6 elements) are generalized on the cars and motor cycles, whereas the heavy or military vehicles use the 24 Voltss.
The lead-acid batteries are also used to feed all kinds of electric machines. The electric cars still were not essential because of the bad report ⁄ ratio masses/energy of the batteries, although the output of an electrical motor is exceptional.
These batteries can be used to store energy produced intermittently, like solar energy or wind mill.
One charges a lead-acid battery by applying a D.C. current to him with an unspecified value (subject to technological limits dependant on the battery itself or its connections), provided that it does not involve at the boundaries of the battery the appearance of a tension higher than 2,35-2,40 V ⁄ element (value with 25°C).
The application of this rule results in noting two successive phases of load in practice:
1 the phase known as DC (Constant Current or Constant Current) during which the tension by element is lower than 2,35 V in spite of the application of the maximum current of which the charger is able: the current is determined by the charger, and the tension by the battery. The terminal voltage of each element increases as the battery is reloaded.
2 the phase known as CV (Constant Voltsage or TC Constant Tension), known as also "phase of absorption" starts as soon as the tension by element reaches the value of 2,35 V ⁄ element since the application of the instruction above leads the charger (his linked system transforming it into a generator of tension) to adjust the current so that the tension remains equal to 2,35 V ⁄ element whereas the battery continues to take care. The current during this phase is thus a decreasing function of time. It tends theoretically towards 0 asymptotically.
At the end of the load the current in phase CV is not cancelled. It is stabilized with a low but nonzero value which does not increase any more the state of load but electrolysis the water of the electrolyte. One thus recommends to stop the load, or, if one wants to apply a continued load (known as of maintenance or floating, in order to compensate for the phenomenon of autodécharge), to lower the tension of instruction to a value of about 2,3 Volts/element.
Load CC ⁄ CV spread because it only makes it possible to charge at current fort (thus quickly) without damaging the battery. This mode of load is used in all our cars: in phase DC, the charging current depends primarily on the number of revolutions of the alternator (and thus of the engine). In phase CV, the tension of instruction is maintained by control that constitutes the voltage regulator. This one indeed decreases the operate current of the alternator, so that the output current of the alternator never has as a result a tension higher than 2,35 Volts/element (with a light correction according to the temperature).
When in the case of the cheap chargers, one does not have a charger able to limit his tension to the set point corresponding to 2,35 V ⁄ element, one recommends to limit the charging current to for example 10% of the capacity of the battery in order to minimize the detrimental consequences of the going beyond of tension which is likely to occur at the end of the load.
Causes of degradation
The leading causes of degradation of the batteries are:
complete discharge
the oxidation of the electrodes
the oxidation of the terminals
Sulphating represents the accumulation of lead sulfate on the electrodes. This phenomenon appears naturally with each discharge of the battery, and disappears at the time of a refill. However under certain conditions (prolonged or too major discharge, important temperature, gasification of the electrolyte), of lead the stable sulfate small islands appear and are not dissolved any more at the time of the load. The lead sulfate thus generated decreases the capacity of the battery by preventing the reactions on the electrode and from its low electric conductivity.
The process of sulphating is stopped as soon as the battery is given in load.
Example: A battery sulphated of 1000 CCA in a new state, but controlled with 12 Volts and with a power of 500 CCA, will take again after refill a tension higher or equal to 12,6 Volts but the measured power of 500 CCA will evolve/move little.
A battery in this state will not allow several consecutive startings of a motor vehicle and will be able to cause, for example, a breakdown immobilizing as of the cold first. In a general way, if the vehicle is not used for one long period, its battery should be reloaded regularly to make it last.
There exists a means of reversing the process of sulphating of a battery. That consists of the sending of electric impulses at the frequency of resonance of the battery (between 2 and 6 MHz). During this process, the sulfur ions enter in collision with the plates, which causes to dissolve lead sulfate which recovers them.
Complete discharge
For a motor vehicle, the complete discharge of the battery generally intervenes by low fuel consumption for one prolonged length of time (example: ceiling lights) or by an important consumption (ex headlights dipped, ventilation), engine with the stop. The tension is then very weak at the boundaries of the battery, lower than 10 Voltss for a battery whose nominal voltage is of 12 Volts.
A starting battery discharges also all alone in time. It is thus likely to reach its complete discharge if it is not reloaded regularly. For this reason, there exist the "chargers of maintenance" of batteries.
The batteries in a state of complete discharge must be reloaded within a 48 hours maximum delay: beyond, the damage is irreversible (except by desulfatation).
The manufacturers of batteries indicate their lifespan in the form of a number of standardized cycles of discharge/refill.
At the conclusion of a certain operating time depend on the number and amplitude of the cycles, the battery is worn: the electrolyte presents an aspect noirâtre.
Example: the repeated use of a driving lifting forage ladder to the stop accelerates the wear of the battery by cycling.
Oxidation of the electrodes
Oxidation is a cause of dysfunction of the batteries. When the level of electrolyte is too low, the plates enter in contact with the air and oxidize. The power with starting is cut down, even if the level of electrolyte is supplemented. The lack of electrolyte can come from an intensive use (example: auxiliary equipments, etc), of an important outside temperature (higher or equalizes to 30 °C) or of a too high charging voltage.
It happens that a battery whose thimbles are not tightened enough, or who is only useful very little, way its terminals to oxidize, which will prevent the current from passing and thus, in the long term, a complete discharge.

Battery nickel cadmium

40~60 [Wh-kg]
50~150 [Wh-L]
output load-discharge
10% to 20% per month
24 to 36 months
many cycles of load
2000 cycles
Accumulator cadmium-nickel of PSA Germany
Le Nickel cadmium or Ni-Cd is component entering the clothes industry of accumulators for, inter alia, laptops, the portable tooling, the emergency lighting. Batteries Ni-Cd are sensitive to the ratchet effect.
Batteries Ni-Cd today are relatively exceeded in term of autonomy, they were supplanted by the NiMH batteries, themselves now competed with by the batteries Li-ion.
to note: NiCad name is erroneous since a chemical element shortens by one or two letters maximum, but it is very employed in designation general public of these accumulators.
Advantages of NiCd
Simple and fast load, even after a long period of storage.
Reloads itself easily even at low temperature.
Great lifespan of number of cycle of load and discharge.
Good performances at low temperature.
Resistance interns very weak,
Easy storage, whatever its level of load.
Storage and simple transport.
Low costs.
Weaknesses of NiCd
Energy weak density.
Car-discharge rather quickly (20% ⁄ month).
Sensitivity to the ratchet effect.
When one speaks to discharge a battery completely that of course implies not to go down in lower part from 1 V ⁄ element. This is the minimal tension in lower part of which the element should never go down under penalty of partial destruction, even complete. The discharge proceeds in three phases
Firstly a fast fall of the tension towards the value of 1,2 Volts/element.
Then a long beach where the tension remains stable with this value.
And finally a fast fall of the tension, it is there that it is imperatively necessary to stop the discharge before the destruction.
The length of these phases is function of the output current. For an optimal discharge, it is necessary to conform to the indications given by the manufacturer according to the technology and of the characteristics of the accumulator. According to their technology the accumulators can more or less output current for the same capacity.
A very strict framing of the setting on the European market of this technology was instituted by the directive 2006/66/CE published in the CHEEK on September 6th, 2006. This framing will be effective as of the transposition in the national legislations of the 25 Member States of the European Union, transposition which must intervene in the 24 months which follow this publication date this directive. Inter alia regulations, this directive envisages the prohibition of the use of cadmium in the portable accumulators, except for the accumulators intended for the emergency systems and of alarm, like with medical equipment and the tools electric without wire.
Accumulators Ni-Cd designed for an industrial or professional use are not covered by this prohibition. Indeed powerful systems of collection and recycling at the end of the lifetime were set up by the producers, thus making it possible to prevent that they do not finish their days in the discharges or the incinerators.

Battery nickel métral hydride

30~80 [Wh-kg]
140~300 [Wh-L]
output load-discharge
24 to 48 months
many cycles of load
nominal voltage by element
1.2 Volt
The accumulators nickel metal hydride or NiMH were marketed about 1990 and present a higher voluminal energy from at least 30% compared to the accumulators NiCd Cadmium Nickel and themselves are today exceeded in terms of mass energy by the accumulators Li-ion (Lithium-ion) and Polymeric Lithium.
The advantage, as regards environment, of the accumulator batteries NiMH is the absence of cadmium and lead, two very polluting materials. Moreover they have better performances as well as a low sensitivity to the ratchet effect.
Except the nickel (in the form of hydroxide) of the positive electrode, the NiMH accumulator use as electrolyte a solution of hydroxide of potassium (potash - KOH) as well as an alloy hydrurable at base lanthanum rare earth and of nickel of the LaNi5 type.
Their manufacture and recycling must nevertheless be carried out very carefully, for example the potassium hydroxide is irritating and corrosive for the skin, the eyes, the respiratory and digestive tracts.
Voltage curves of load according to the intensity. C represents the Capacity in A.h
Traditionally the load of an accumulator with the Nickel of capacity C is done in I = C ⁄ 10h, that is to say for one duration of 10 hours theoretical load (in practice nearer to 14:00). The NiMH accumulators not supporting to be overloaded (except by a current of maintenance very weak C ⁄ 20h), it is recommended in practice to use a charger who detects the end of load automatically. Detection is reliable only for one fast load, that is to say about C ⁄ 1h or even of C ⁄ 15min. An optimal charger would combine several characteristics:
charge fast t = 1h
detection of end of load by 0, or the point of inflection =0
monitoring of the temperature of the accumulator
temporization of safety
detection of the defective accumulators.
The battery of predilection of the hybrid vehicles
The NiMH batteries are currently the standard to equip the hybrid cars (combustion engine + electrical motor). Indeed in spite of performances in withdrawal compared to the batteries containing lithium, they keep the advantage of carrying strong discharge and charging currents well and are much surer in the event of overheating.
Toyota Prius and Honda Civic IMA, for example, are both equipped with a NiMH battery, 1,5 kWh (39 kg) for the first and with 28 kg for the second. These batteries are designed to last all the lifespan of the vehicle (guaranteed 8 years).
Currently, all the defective batteries are returned to Japan at Panasonic, which undertakes with recycling. In the long term, this one should be carried out in France by the SNAM where the process of recycling is always under development.
Strong points of NiMH
Much more energy contains than the Cadmium-nickel
Not very sensitive to the ratchet effect
Simple to store and transport
Do not pollute like the Cadmium-nickel
Weak points of NiMH
Do not support the going beyond of load
Detection of difficult end of load
Lifespan weaker than the Cadmium-nickel of many cycles

Battery lithium-ion

100-200 [Wh-kg]
200-400 [Wh-L]
output load-discharge
5% to 10% /mois
24 to 36 months
many cycles of load
1200 cycles
nominal voltage by element
3,6 or 3,7 Volts
An accumulator lithium is a technology of storage of energy of the family of the electrochemical accumulators, whose reaction is based on
One distinguishes technology Lithium metal where the negative electrode is made up of metal lithium (material which presents security issues), and technology lithium ion, where lithium remains in an ionic state thanks to the use of a compound of insertion as well to the negative electrode (generally out of graphite) as with the positive electrode (dioxide of cobalt, manganese, phosphate of iron). The accumulators polymeric lithium are an alternative to the accumulators lithium-ion, they deliver a little less energy, but are much surer.
Contrary to other technologies, the accumulators Li-ion are not related to an electrochemical couple. Any material which can accommodate in its center of the ions lithium can be at the base of an accumulator Li-ion. This explains the profusion of alternatives of this technology, vis-a-vis the constancy observed with the other couples. It is thus delicate to draw from the general rules on this technology. Markets of strong volume (electronic nomad) and of strong energies (car, aeronautics) not having the same requirements in terms for lifespan, cost or power.
At this beginning of XXIe century, this technology offers strongest specific energy (energy/mass) and the greatest density of energy (energy ⁄ volume).
Marketed for the first time by Sony Energitech in 1991, the battery lithium-ion occupies today a prevalent place on the market of portable electronics. Its main advantages are a density of high energy (mass density two to five times more than Nor-MH for example) as well as the absence of effect of memory. The car-discharge is relatively weak compared to other accumulators. However the cost remains important and confines lithium with the systems of small size
The battery lithium-ion functions on the reversible exchange of the ion lithium between a positive electrode, generally a metal oxide of transition containing lithium (dioxide of cobalt or manganese) and a negative graphite electrode (sphere MCMB). The use of an electrolyte aprotic (a salt LiPF6 dissolved in a mixture of carbonate) is obligatory to avoid degrading the very reactive electrodes.
The tension of an element Li-Ion is of 3,6 Volts. This equivalence 1 element Li-Ion = 3 elements Nor-MH is very interesting because it makes it possible in certain cases to make a pure and simple substitution, Li-Ion by Nor-MH only, the reverse being able to prove to be catastrophic. Moreover Nor-MH is of a surer use, in particular at the time of the load.
This security issue forces to integrate an electronic system of protection, generally embarked in each element with lithium (It prevents a load or discharges too deep: if not the danger can go until the explosion of the element).
The discharge and acceptable charging currents are as weaker as with other technologies. Lastly, another defect: the elements age even in the absence of use. Whatever the number of loads ⁄ discharges, their lifespan would be limited to one duration from approximately two or three years after manufacture.
Let us note however that there exist accumulators Li-ion industrialists of great power (several hundred Watts per element) which are not touched by this ageing, thanks to a more worked chemistry and a thorough electronic management. These elements can function up to 15 years (aeronautics, hybrid vehicles, back-up systems). The Galiléo satellites for example are equipped with battery Li-ion one lifespan old twelve years. However the use of technology Li-ion on these scales of power is only at its beginnings.
Advantages of the accumulators lithium-ion
They do not present any ratchet effect contrary to the accumulators containing nickel
Have weak a autodécharge (10% per month even often less than quelques% per annum!)
Do not require maintenance
Have a high density of energy for a very weak weight, thanks to the physical properties of lithium (very electric potential weight positive ratio ⁄ ). These accumulators thus are very much used in the field of the embarked systems.
Allow a better safety than the batteries purely lithium, but always require a protective circuit.
Weaknesses of the accumulators lithium-ion
Depth of discharge: these batteries wear less quickly when they are reloaded all the 10% that when they are to it all the 80%
On the products general public, this technology wears even when one does not make use of it (internal corrosion and increase of internal resistance
The discharge and acceptable charging currents are weaker than with other technologies.
It can occur a short-circuit between the two electrodes by dendritic lithium growth.
The use of a liquid electrolyte presents dangers if an escape occurs and that this one comes into contact with air or water.
This misused technology present of the potential dangers: they can be degraded while heating beyond 80°C in a brutal and dangerous reaction. It is always necessary to handle the accumulators lithium-ion with an extreme precaution, these batteries can be explosive. And as with any accumulator: never not to put in short-circuit the accumulator, to reverse the polarities, to overload nor to bore the case.
To avoid the problems, these batteries must always be equipped with a protective circuit, a thermal fuse and a spill valve. They must be charged by respecting very precise parameters and never not be discharged below 2,5 Volts per element.
To prolong the life of a battery Li-ion (lithium-ion)
Not to make of major discharge.
Not to store the batteries too a long time without using them.
To store the battery with room temperature (many manufacturers recommend storage with 15 °C)
To store the battery in the neighborhoods of 40% of load.
Not to completely charge the battery before storing it.
Not to completely discharge the battery before storing it.
Not to make stock of batteries of replacement.
At the time of the purchase of the battery, to check the date of manufacture, its wear starting as of its exit of factory.
Not to use during the time of load

battery lithium-chloride of thionile

The couple lithium-chloride of thionyl comprises a lithium anode the metal, lightest of metals, associated with a pool cathode made up of porous a carbon electrode filled with thionyl chloride (SOCl2). The piles deliver 3,6 V. They are cylindrical, of format 1,2AA to D, with electrodes spiral for the applications of power or concentric (winds) for the prolonged discharges.
The piles lithium-chloride of thionyl are characterized by their high density of energy, due partly to their nominal voltage of 3,6 V, and being able to reach, in version winds, 1220 Wh ⁄ l and 760 Wh ⁄ kg is 18,5 Ah under 3,6 V in format D. They are characterized by a autodécharge extrèmement weak (less than 1% per annum) allowing a prolonged storage or working lives from 10 to 20 years.
To facilitate their implementation, the piles can be equipped with various connectors or assemblies out of batteries of which there exist standardized versions.
The various ranges developed by Saft make it possible to satisfy multiple portable or sedentary applications civil and military.
Principal applications
Water ⁄ gas meters ⁄ electricity
Remote reading
Safety and warning devices without wire
Remote follow-up of positionings
Beacons of distress (ELT, EPIRB)
Military radiocommunication
Acoustic buoys
Oil exploration
Automobile telematics
Professional electronics
Systems of electronic toll
Systems of identification and traceability
Safeguard of memory
Maintenance of memory
Clock real-time

battery lithium-dioxide of manganese

The cylindrical primary education elements with lithium LM ⁄ M Saft, are based on the couple lithium-bioxide of manganese (Li-MnO2).
They implement spiral electrodes of large surfaces, supporting the delivery of high currents. Their electrolyte is formulated to offer excellent performances at low temperature. They lend themselves to applications implementing continuous currents being able to vary in beach 0,1 to 5, coupled with pulsate being able to go up to 5 has
The referred elements Saft LM are manufactured in USA.Les referred elements Friwo M are manufactured in Germany.
Main features
Spiral electrodes
Stainless steel containers
Hermetic and robust sealings glass-metal
Integrated vents of safety
Products available in the form of unit elements or of packs multi-element batteries
Principal applications
Military Radiocommunicatios
Acoustic buoys
Beacons of distress (ELT, EPIRB)
Cardiac Défibrillateurs
Professional electronics
Equipment of measurement
Output voltage raised, stable during the major part of the lifespan
Broad beach of operating temperatures (- 40 to +70 C)
Excellent resistance to passivation, same after a storage prolonged in environments at not controlled temperature
Excellent performance in lower part of -20° C
Noncorrosive organic electrolyte (but flammable)
Loss of capacity lower than 3% per year of storage to room temperature, before use
Performances independent of the orientation of the elements
Conformity with the RoHS European directive
Excellent safety of use

sulfur Lithium-dioxide

a battery of the Sodium-Sulfur type which with the characteristic to function towards the 300°C. We will not return in the technical details of this system, largely explained in addition.
It is enough to integrate that to this constraint of temperature is added that of a conducting electrolyte-separator of ions Sodium (Na+) consisted of alumina béta. IT is appeared as a large test tube of some fractions of millimetres thickness.
This system, mechanically fragile can be only stationary and established if possible in the open air or in a ventilated building. NGK will deliver to German Younicos a battery of 1000 kw power for evaluation. This battery consists of 20 modules of 360kWh able to generate a power of 50kW each one (FIG. II).
Each module containing 320 cylindrical storage cells associated with bodies of thermal regulation and safety is filled with sand. A module of 5,6 m3 volume, weighs more than 3 tons. The accumulators in full load can discharge to 85% from the capacity in approximately 6 hours.
The principal advantage of the batteries Sodium-Sulfur lies in the availability of the active matters which do not call upon any metal of transition. NGK announces one lifespan of these batteries estimated at 15 years and one lifespan in cycling of 4500 cycles to 85% of depth of discharge.
NGK estimates that in production of broad series the price of its battery should arrive at 140$ ⁄ kWh, which would carry the price of a battery of 1500 kw to 1,5 million dollars. It is, in my opinion, still three times too expensive to operate a true opening.
Main features
Spiral electrodes
Nickel-plated steel containers
Hermetic and robust sealings glass-metal
Integrated vents of safety
Products available in the form of individual elements or of packs multi-element batteries
Principal applications
Radiocommunications soldier
Acoustic buoys and other subaqueous applications
Beacons of distress (ELT, EPIRB)
Cardiac Défibrillateurs
Professional electronics
Output voltage raised, stable during the major part of the lifespan
Broad beach of operating temperatures (-60°C with +70°C)
Good resistance to passivation
Non flammable but corrosive pressurized electrolyte, quickly expelled in the event of degasification
Loss of capacity lower than 3% per year of storage to room temperature, before use
Performances independent of the orientation of the elements
Unequalled aptitude for pulsate of current
Conformity with the RoHS European directive
25 years of experience of production, offering an excellent retreat as regards safety, in many demanding military applications

battery lithium-phosphate

This version, recent, has a tension a little weaker but wants to be surer, less toxic and of less low cost. Indeed, the price of the piles and batteries to the lithium-ion comes mainly from materials used with the cathode, which contains cobalt and/or nickel, very expensive metals and making more delicate the multi-sourcing. In a Lithium accumulator with technique phosphates, standard cathodes are replaced by phosphate of iron, not very expensive material, because not containing rare metals, and moreover not poisons contrary to cobalt. Moreover, this cathode is very stable and does not slacken oxygen making it surer.
For an industrial development in the electric vehicle (containing about 30 kWh of accumulators), price drops are imperative. The cost of an accumulator Li-FePO is of more than 1000 €/kWh and will have to be lowered under 500 €/kWh to reach this market.
Some manufacturing Chinese propose at the 6 ⁄ 11 ⁄ 2011 accumulators of 3.2V 16 Ah (either 51 Wh) for 21 $, or 15€ (1.41 $ ⁄ 1€), which approximately gives a price of kWh to 300€. Attention, this type of batteries requires the use of BMS (safety measures), the BMS adds approximately 20% at the price.
However research is still in hand to make sure of their lifespan, to bring their capacity to the level of the other techniques Li-ion and, to improve their behavior with high temperatures in the long run: it would seem that the dissolution of iron (supported by the temperature) harms the cyclability of this type of accumulator.
A team of MIT developed, in March 2009, a process allowing to dope considerably the speed of load of the accumulators lithium-ion which one finds in the majority of our apparatuses high-tech. Since 2009 in Europe, an entirely electric small car should run with this accumulator whose time of load is much shorter than the former models
Energy ⁄ Weight
100 to 200 Wh ⁄ kg
energy ⁄ volume
200 to 400 Wh ⁄ l
Output load-discharge
1% to 10% per month
7 years lifespan
Many cycles of load
1200 cycles
Nominal voltage by element
3,6 or 3,7 V

Battery lithium silicon

Company PROLLION has just announced the marketing of the battery EnerSi 250, the power of that Ci is of 250 Wh ⁄ kg.
This mass energy obtained thanks to an electrochemistry containing Silicium enables him to offer an exceptional autonomy, power and a safety.
énergy ⁄ Weight
250 Wh ⁄ kg
énergy ⁄ volume
480 Wh ⁄ l
Nominal voltage by element
3,40 volt
This type of battery is particularly adapted to applications requiring a great autonomy, strong calls of power and needing several hundreds of cycles of load and discharge, like the security systems or the radiocommunications and other portable systems military.

Batterie lithium-soufre

energy ⁄ weight
300-500Wh ⁄ k
output load-discharge
many cycles of load
1500 cycles
The first advantage of the model lithium-sulfur is that the anode is not made up like usually of lithium but of a compound silicon-carbon. This compound is significantly more stable because it changes less at the time of the load. That represents an important advantage because the more the anode of a battery changes, the more it interacts with the liquid electrolyte: this process leads the electrolyte to break up into gas and solid, which drains the battery. In the most extreme cases, the anode grown until coming into contact with cathode what produces a short-circuit and makes the battery unusable.
There remained however a challenge to take up by the team: sulfur also interacts with the liquid electrolyte, which decreases the performances of the batteries until their making lose all their capacity. To answer this problem, the team of the IWS decided to use porous carbon.

battery oxidizes money-aluminum

At the end of the Eighties, program JFP between France, Germany and Italy was set up in order to define a new system of electric propulsion for the heavy torpedes. The technology of batteries oxidizes money-aluminum (AgO-Al) was retained because for the same mass and the same volume, it makes it possible to deliver the double of energy and power of a conventional battery Ag-Zn. Moreover, technology AgO-Al offers a long-term storage capacity up to 12 years without maintenance none.
Principal applications
light torpedes (MU90)
heavy torpedes (Blackshark)
Deliver the double of energy and power of a conventional battery Ag-Zn
No maintenance necessary
Long-term storage capacity up to 12 years

battery oxidizes money-zinc

The couple money-zinc is used to produce primary or secondary batteries (refillable). In the elements for batteries primary education, the anode consists of zinc and the cathode of money oxide. In the elements for secondary batteries, the anode consists of oxide of zinc and the cathode of money. The electrolyte is containing potash in all the cases. The tension of the couple is 1,65 V.
principal applications
military torpedes
guidance, piloting, the activation of the pumps of the ARIANE launcher
the refillable batteries are used for the exercise
the primary batteries are used for the combat.
For safety reasons and of safeguarding of the performances (8+ years of storage), the pile is activated only at the last time by injection of the electrolyte. The batteries money-zinc are characterized by their density of energy and their power.

battery chloride money-magnesium

The Saft batteries with money-magnesium chloride (AgCl-Mg) are designed for the propulsion of light combat torpedes such as the Stingray torpedes and a244 series. Saft is the single supplier of V616 batteries and SV616 accredited for a244 torpedes. A244 torpedes, equipped with the V616 batteries, were used successfully by 14 national marines throughout the world, in particular in South America, Asia and Europe of the South and North.
Principal applications
Stingray of BAE
A244 (MOD 0, MOD 1, MOD 2, MOD 3) of Whitehead Alenia Systemi Subacquei (WASS)
Maximum safety
Long-term storage capacity

Batteries MGA

37.3 [WH-kg]
103 [WH-L]
3 to 5 years
number of cycle of load
300 to 900
nominal voltage by element
1.9 to 2.1 volts
This new type of sealed battery uses technology "Absorbed Glass Chechmate Batteries". This technology uses between the lead plates of the battery a fine Boron-Silicate fiber sheet. This fine sheet is soaked with electrolyte (water 70% and 30% of acid) which comes into contact with the plates. These batteries have same qualities that the batteries with freezing and allow more handling error.
Battery MGA have much advantage in comparison with the batteries acid-lead conventional and the batteries with freezing:
As the electrolyte is soaked in fiber it cannot run even in the event of breaking of the case of the battery, by this fact even transport is much easier and without danger. Not having liquid, the MGA are far from sensitive to the detrimental effects of freezing.
Has can close all the batteries of MGA are of "recombining" type, that is to say that oxygen and hydrogen bind and untie themselves inside the battery without gaseous emissions outside. The gas phase at the time of the load of the battery transfer oxygen towards the negative plates to transform it into water, which avoids any water loss. This action is effective with more than 99% making negligible the water loss.
The voltage of load of the MGA is exactly the same one as that of the conventional batteries acid-lead what requires any adjustment some is the type of regulator used at the time of the load (charger, alternators, solar panel, wind etc.).
The internal resistance of the MGA being extremely low, it has there only little internal heat emission at the time of the load or the discharge. This phenomenon allows a great flexibility of the discharge and load factors
Other favors the MGA have a very low rate of autodécharge, about 1% to 3% per month. This low level allows a lasting storage of long periods without frequent reloads as with the standard batteries.
In the event of severe overload (regulator defective or non-existent) the hydrogen emissions are in lower part of 4% what corresponds to the severe standards of aviation and closed spaces.
The plates of the MGA being narrowly compressed and firmly fixed by the top and bottom in the cell, the impact resistance and to the vibrations is definitely higher than the conventional batteries.
For our boats the MGA are ideal: no maintenance (what makes it possible to place it in inaccessible places), not of gaseous emission (not of danger of explosion and harmful effect for the health of the crew) use of the conventional load factors what then makes it possible to use any system of standard load, minimum maintenance during the wintering and finally any casting of acid in the funds.

Battery aluminum air

1300 [Wh-kg]
200 Watt per kg
nominal voltage by element
1.2 volt
Batteries of aluminum or aluminum batteries are generally known like batteries of aluminum-air or batteries of Al-air, since they produce electricity starting from the reaction of oxygen in air with aluminum. They have the density of the highest energy of all the batteries, but they are usually not employed because of the problems of cost, shelf life, times of warming-up and displacement of by-product, which limited their use mainly to the military applications. An electric vehicle with aluminum batteries could have potentially ten to fifteen times the range of the batteries of lead acid with a total weight much smaller.
the Al-air are the batteries primary, C. - with-D., not-refillable, and can also be regarded as being fuel cells. Once the aluminum anode is consumed by its reaction to atmospheric oxygen with a cathode immersed in an electrolyte containing water with the hydrated form aluminum oxide, the battery will not produce any more electricity. However, it can be possible mechanically to reload the battery with new aluminum anodes made from re-using hydrated aluminum oxide. In fact, the re-use of formed aluminum oxide will be essential so batteries of aluminum air must be largely adopted.
anode oxidation half-reaction is : Al + 3OH- Al de (OH)3 + 3e-
cathode the half-reaction of reduction is: O2 + 2H2O + 4e- 4OH-
All the reaction is: 4Al + 3O2 + 6H2 4Al (OH) O3
Approximately 1.2 volt potential difference is created by these reactions. The tension of cells with the sea water electrolyte is around only 0.7 V. the use of the electrolyte of potassium hydroxide leads to a tension of cells of 1.2 V.
There are some engineering problems to solve always however to make batteries of Al-air appropriate to the actuating electric vehicles. Made pure aluminum anodes are corroded by the electrolyte, thus aluminum is usually combined with tin or other elements of industrial property. The hydrated alumina which is created by the reaction of cells forms a colloidal substance with the anode and reduces the output of electricity. It is a question which is tackled in the work of development on cells of Al-air. For example, one developed additives which form alumina like powders rather than a gel. Moreover alloys proved to form less gel than pure aluminum.
Modern cathodes of air are made leave PTFE and Carbon layers surrounding a catalyst and Nickel has foams. The oxygen in air crosses PTFE spreads then by the electrolyte to reach the aluminum anode. These cathodes function well but they can be expensive.
The traditional batteries of Al-air had one limited shelf life because aluminum put to react with the electrolyte and hydrogen produces when the battery was nonusable - although it is not any more the case with modern designs. These batteries were used like batteries of reservation in some telephone centres, like energy source of help. batteries of Al-air could be used to actuate laptops and cellphones and are developed for such a use.

battery of Zinc-air

370 [Wh-kg]
nominal voltage of the elements
1.35 to 1.65 volt
batteries of Zinc-air (not-refillable) and zinc-air cells of fuel, (mechanics-refillable) be electrochemical batteries actuated by zinc oxidation with oxygen in air. These batteries have the high densities of energy and are relatively inexpensive to produce. They are employed inside hearing aids and in experimental electric vehicles. They can be an important part of future a saving in zinc.
Particles of zinc are mixed with the electrolyte (usually potassium solution hydroxide), the water and the oxygen in air react to cathode and form hydroxyls what emigrate in the zinc paste and form the zincate (Zn (OH) 42-), to which not electrons are released and travel to cathode. The zincate is dilapidated in oxide of zinc and water is released again in the system. The water and hydroxyls of the anode are re-used with cathode, thus with the services of water only like catalyst. The reactions produce a level maximum of 1.65 volts, but this is tiny room to 1.4-1.35 V by reducing the circulation of air in the cell, this is usually done so that batteries of hearing aid reduce the being desiccated rate of water.
The limit cell of fuel of zinc-air usually refers to a battery zinc-air in which zinc fuel is supplemented the level and the zinc oxide loss is removed without interruption. This is accomplished by pushing the paste or the granules of zinc electrolyte in a room of anode. The oxide of zinc reject is pumped in a tank or a flexible tank of reject inside the fuel tank, and the paste or the granules expenses of zinc is taken tank fuel. The zinc oxide loss is pumped outside at a station of restocking out of fuel and is sent to a factory of re-use. Alternatively, this limit can refer to an electrochemical system behind to which zinc is employed like Co-reagent to help the reform hydrocarbon fuels on an anode of a fuel cell.
the batteries of Zinc-air as well as have properties of the fuel cells of the batteries: zinc is the containing hydrocarbon one, the rate of the reaction can be ordered by ordering the circulation of air, and the paste used of zinc/electrolyte can be removed cell and be replaced with the fresh paste. Research is undertaken in electric vehicles actuating with batteries of zinc-air.
Formulas of reaction
Here chemical equations for the cell of zinc-air:
Anode: Zn + 4OH- Zn de (OH)42- + 2e- (E0 = - 1.25 V)
Fluid: Zn (OH)42- ZnO + H2O + 2OH-
Cathode: O2 + 2H2O + 4e- 4OH- (E0 = 0.4 V)
In a general way: 2Zn + O2 2ZnO (E0 = 1.65 V)
Alternatively the reaction is stated without use of zincate, but it is vague:
Anode: Zn + 2OH- Zn de (OH)2 + 2e- (E0 = - 1.25 V)
Cathode: O2 + 2H2O + 4e- 4OH- (E0 = 0.4 V)
In a general way: 2Zn + O2 + 2H2 2Zn (OH)
O2 (E0 = 1.65 V)
An important disadvantage is that zinc is not liquid, and cannot be pumped like fuel. But it can be pumped like granules. Cells of fuel to employ it (the zinc-air battery is considered has primary cell and is not-refillable) should empty exhausted zinc and be restocked with fuel quickly. The exhausted zinc-oxide would be tiny room to a local service in zinc.
Produced hydrogen of zinc and water could be flaring in conventional internal combustion engines, although this provides an engine far less powerful than an hydrocarbon-actuated engine, a better alternative would be the use of the electrical motors of high output to exploit the power produced by a battery of zinc-air and to drive the vehicle.
Zinc has a certain number of advantages compared to hydrogen like energy-carrier. the batteries of cells of Zinc-air are effective already enough for the practical use in vehicles. Pure zinc is not-poison and appreciably easier to store than hydrogen, and can be treated by electrochemistry containing water.

Lithium air

The Lithium-Air, which uses oxygen to function, can potentially reach 2000Wh ⁄ kg, 10 times longer than lithium-ion.Cette thesis aims to study and optimize this emerging technology, both in terms of electrode materials and electrolyte as the design of the battery.
lithium-air battery uses a lithium-oxygen that provides a high energy density (typically between 1700 and 2400 Wh ⁄ kg in practice to a theoretical figure of 5200 Wh ⁄ kg
The arrival of Air Lithium in the coming years will greatly amplify the electrical revolution that is just beginning. This kind of innovation, coupled across Quick Charge will lead inexorably to the chutte oil for cars.

Molten salt battery

90 [Wh-kg]
150 [W-kg]
Molten salt batteries are a class of primary cell and secondary cell at high temperatures electric battery this salts use melted as an electrolyte. They offer a density of energy more raised by the suitable choice of the pairs of reagent as well as a density of higher power by means of a high conductivity molten salt electrolyte. They are employed in the services where high density of energy and high density of power are required. These devices make with the refillable molten batteries salt a promising technology to actuate electric vehicles. The operating temperatures of 400 with 700°C however bring problems of the more rigorous requirements thermics of management and safety and places on the remainder of the components of battery.
Primary cells
Visé As batteries thermal the electrolyte is full and inactive with the normal room temperatures. Thermically started batteries were designed by the Germans during the WW II and were used in the V2 rockets. Dr. Georg Otto Erb is credited to develop the dissolve-salt battery which employed the heat of the rocket to maintain salt liquid during its mission. Technology was brought again to the United States in 1946 and was immediately adapted to replace the systems liquid-based tedious which had been previously employed in fuses of artillery proximity.
These batteries were used for applications of artillery since the second world war and, following to that, in nuclear weapons. They are the primary energy source for many missiles such as Sidewinder, patriot, towing, Tomahawk, cruising, etc In these batteries the electrolyte is immobilized if molten by a special category of magnesium oxide which holds it in place by the capillary action. This mixture out of powder is tight in granules to form a separator between the anode and the cathode of each cell in the pile of battery. As long as the electrolyte (salt) is full, the battery is inert and remains inactive. Each cell also contains a pyrotechnics source which is employed to heat the cell at the typical operating temperature of 400 - 550C.
There are two types of design. One employs a band of fuse (containing barium chromate and zirconium powder metal in a ceramics paper) along the edge of the granules of heat to launch the burn. The band of fuse is typically put fire by a candle or an electric detonator (match) by application of a tension through it. The second design employs a central hole in the middle of the pile of battery in which the electric candle of great energy puts fire at a mixture of hot gases and incandescent particles.
The design of center-hole grants times much faster of activation (tens of milliseconds) against the hundreds of milliseconds for edge-strip the design. The activation of battery can also be accomplished by a starter of percussion, similar to a shell of shotgun. It is wished that the pyrotechnics source is gasless. The standard source of heat are composed typically of the mixtures of powder of potassium iron and perchlorate in reports ⁄ ratios of weight in general of 88 ⁄ 12, 86/14, and 84/16. The higher the level of potassium perchorate is, plus calories of the heat released are high the 297 (nominally 200,259, and ⁄ or, respectively).
This property of storage not activated has the double advantage of avoiding the deterioration of active materials during storage and at the same time it eliminates the loss of capacity due to the self-discharge until the battery is called in the use. They can be stored thus indefinitely (over 50 years) however to provide the full powers in one moment when it is required. Once activated, they provide a high glare of power for one short period (a few tens of seconds) more to 60 minutes or more, in output of power extending from ones Watts to several kilowatts.
The possibilities of high power due to very high ionic conductivity salt are melted, which is three orders of magnitude or larger than that of the sulphuric acid in a battery of car of lead acid. Older thermal batteries employed calcium or magnesium anodes, with cathodes of chromate of calcium or oxides of vanadium or tungsten, but of lithium] - the alloy anodes replaced the latter in the Eighties, with lithium-silicon alloys being favoured above older lithium-aluminum alloys. Corresponding cathode for the use with the lithium-alloy anodes is mainly the iron disulfide (pyrite) with cobalt disulfide being employed for applications of high power.
The electrolyte is normally an eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides. More recently, other low-cast iron, eutectic electrolytes based on lithium bromide, potassium bromide, and lithium chloride or fluoride was also employed to provide moreover operational long lives; they are also of better drivers. The alleged all-lithium electrolyte based on lithium chloride, the lithium bromide, and the lithium fluoride (aucuns salts of potassium) is also employed for applications of high power, because of its high ionic conductivity.
These batteries are used almost exclusively for weapons the single stroke soldiers of IE of applications like guided missiles. However, same technology was also studied by laboratories of Argonne National in the Eighties for the possible use in electric vehicles, since technology is refillable.
Secondary cells
Since the middle of the Sixties much of work of development was undertaken on using refillable batteries sodium (Na) for negative electrodes. Sodium is attractive because of its high potential of reduction of -2.71 volts, its low weight, its nature not-poison, its abundance relative and availability and its at reduced price. In order to build the practical batteries sodium must be employed in liquid form.
Since sodium melting point is 98°C that this means that the sodium based of the batteries must function with high temperatures, typically above 270°C.
The batteries of sodium ⁄ sulfur and lithium ⁄ sulfur comprise two of the systems more advances of the molten salt batteries. Battery of NAS reached a stage développementale more advanced than its lithium counterparts, it is more attractive since it uses cheap and abundant materials of electrode.
Thus the first produced commercial battery was the battery of sodium ⁄ sulfur which employed the liquid sulfur for the electrode and has it positive out of ceramics tubes electrolyte of beta-alumina solid (BASE) for the electrolyte. The corrosion of the insulators proved to be a problem in the hard chemical environment while they became gradually conducting and the rate of self-discharge increased.
Another dendritic-sodium problem growth in batteries of Na ⁄ S.A. led to the development of the battery of zebra.
Battery of zebra
battery of zebra, which functions with 250°C, uses the molten chloroaluminate (NaAlCl4), which roughly has a melting point of the °C 160, like electrolyte. The negative electrode is molten sodium. The positive electrode is nickel in the state discharged and nickel chloride in the state charged. Since the nickel nickel and chloride are almost insoluble in the neutral and basic pig iron and cast iron is left, contact of close friend, to provide small resistance to charge the transfer. Since both NaAlCl4 and Na is liquid at the operating temperature, an B-alumina of sodium-control out of ceramics is employed to separate liquid sodium from NaAlCl fondu4.
This battery was invented in 1985 by a group carried out by Dr. Johan Coetzer to the CSIR in Pretoria, South Africa, consequently the named battery of zebra (for the project of Africa of searchs for battery of zeolite), and was under development during almost 20 years. The technical name for the battery is Na-NiCl2 battery.
The battery of ZEBRA has an attractive energy and a fuel rating (90 Wh ⁄ kg and 150 W ⁄ kg). The liquid electrolyte freezes with the °C 157 and the range of normal operating temperature is 270-350 °C. The electrolyte full of B-alumina which was developed for this system is very stable, with the sodium metal and the sodium chloroaluminate.
So nonusable, the batteries of zebra typically require to be party under the load, in order to be operational once necessary. So stopped, one must launch a process reheating which can need up to two days to reconstitute the package of battery at the wished temperature, and full load. This time reheating however will change according to state-of-charges with the batteries per hour of their decree, battery-packs the temperature, and the power available for reheating. After a full decree of the package of battery, three to four days usually runs out before a package full-charged with battery loses all its significant heat.

battery SCIB

The Super Load Ion Battery, or SCiB, is a battery developed by Toshiba.
Lifespan: 10 years
Nb of cycles of load ⁄ discharge: 6000 (either 10 times more than for the batteries standards)
Speed of recharging: 9 times more quickly than a battery lithium-ion (it is its principal asset)
More safety than the batteries lithium-ion
Less difficulties of controlling electronically (load, maintenance in load, capacity to output current)
But with a disadvantage:
3 times less of capacity with equal weight than a battery lithium-ion
Anode: Oxide Lithium-Titanium
Cathode: Material with negative electrode
Thermal stability (heating little)
Not high flash (little short - circuits)
Internal structure resistant to the short-circuits
Weak risks of combustion ⁄ rupture
10% of loss of capacity obtained at the end of 3000 cycles discharge ⁄ fast Charge.
Life cycle 6000 loads ⁄ discharges (life cycle = loss of capacity lower than 20%)
Charge very fast (90% reached in 5-10min)
Beach of operating temperature of -40°C with 60°C
Tension of a SCiB cell: 2,4V
Density: 1,48
Energy density approx. 50Wh ⁄ kg
Density of power: approx. 3 kW ⁄ kg
Use of reduced polluting products
The fast load is not a direct characteristic of the battery. These are its elements of robustness (thermal stability, not raised flash, structure internal resistant to short-circuit) which make it possible to use stronger currents without risks of explosion.

Organic battery containing quinone

Two researchers of the university of Heidelberg developed a refillable battery whose electrical energy is stored by organic matter, they indeed succeeded has to store twice more energy in this matter than in a traditional accumulator which uses oxides of heavy metals as accumulator of load.
This new battery is twice more powerful than a traditional pile, has equal weight, the organic matter which constitutes it is made up of quinones, the accumulators can thus be factories in a simple way and has less expenses, and are ecological because do not contain heavy metals.
Quinones constitute a series of dienes rather than aromatic compounds comprising a benzene core on which two hydrogen atoms are replaced by two oxygens forming two connections carbonyls (cyclic combined ethylene diketones).
Quinones are conveyers of electrons in the membrane mitochondriale intern and the membrane of the thylakoïdes.
Principal quinones are:
the benzoquinone or quinone (C6H4O2), discovered in 1838 by Wosrerenski, Polish chemist, which one uses the properties redox in the photographic technique of development. It is one of two isomers of the cyclohexadienedione.
orthobenzoquinone parabenzoquinone naphtoquinone anthraquinone

comparative table

Type Mass density in Wh ⁄ kg Voluminal density in Wh ⁄ l Tension of an element power points some (mass) in W ⁄ kg Lifespan Self discharge per month in %
Plomb ⁄ acide 30-50 75-120 2.25 V 700 400-800 5%
Ni-Cd 45-80 80-150 1,2 V   1500-2000 20%
Ni-MH 60-110 220-330 1,2 V 900 800-1000 30%
Ni-Zn 70-80 120-140 1,65 V 1000 1000 20%
Na-NiCl2 (ZEBRA) 120 180 2,6 V 200 800 100%(12% ⁄ day)
Pile alcaline 80-160   1,5-1,65 V   25 à 500 0,3%
Sodium - soufre 175   2,08 V   1000  
Li-ion 90-180 220-330 3,6 V 1500 500-1000 10%
Li-Po 100-130   3,7 V 250 200-300 10%
Lithium phosphate 120-140 190-220 3,2V 800 2000 5%
Lithium metal polymer 110 110 2,6V 320    
Li-Air 1500-2500   3,4 V 200    
Li-silicium 250 480 3,4 V      
Zinc - argent 200          

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